In what ways do poverty, hunger, HIV, gender discrimination, racism, human trafficking, poor governance, environmental degradation, and inequitable access to health services, education, land and resources create barriers to the gospel? How should we respond theologically and missiologically? In what ways might we, in our ignorance and through our actions or lack of action regarding these issues, even be perpetuating barriers to the gospel in communities where Christ is least known? While these stretching questions challenging the global church may appear to be new, in various guises they have been disturbing many of us engaged in cross-cultural ministry over decades. Indeed, evangelical missions have traditionally responded to similar questions through medical care, agricultural work and education in various forms, especially among those marginalised by society.
Convinced that no one should live and die without hearing God’s good news, SIM (Serving In Mission), with a history of 123 years crossing barriers to proclaim the crucified and risen Christ, is committed to seeing God’s name glorified where he is not known. In Thailand this has included expressing His love and compassion among those living with HIV through a diverse team of locals and foreigners called Radical Grace. The story of a young woman called Rung with her family and in her community demonstrates the need for “integral mission.”
Rung was orphaned as a child from a displaced immigrant family. As a young woman, she was abused by her husband. She now lives with HIV. In addition, and for her so significant, the barrier of illiteracy always seemed insurmountable. Her goal: to be able to sign her name rather than having to use her fingerprint.
Two years ago Rung was desperately ill and alone. She had approached an NGO for help. There she met Sutin, Radical Grace’s holistic care and support worker. She was so weak that he carried her to the hospital and helped her access treatment. Together with CAM (Church of Christ in Thailand AIDS Ministry), Sutin helped Rung to register as an immigrant in Thailand. Today Rung is excited that her dream of writing and reading Thai is slowly becoming a reality! Radical’s Grace’s goal: that Rung might be able to read God’s Word.
Rung is a diligent learner and she enjoys her weekly lessons with Sutin, Radical Grace’s holistic care and support worker. The Radical Grace team is providing a vibrant testimony to the gospel through character, word and action. Her life is now very different: she is healthier and she takes her antiretroviral medication daily. She is living in good housing. She works at a Christian centre where she prepares rooms, provides care and cooks meals. She is a new believer in Christ and attends church. She recently married and desires that she and her husband walk closely together in the Lord.”
This moving story provides the backdrop for a fresh understanding of the extent of evil, sin, the forces of darkness, and injustice. In a sense, Rung’s story intersects with my story: called by God from another continent and ministry to grapple with a pandemic sweeping millions of people like Rung before it. Her story may intersect with your story. In this paper I suggest a framework that includes both the need for God’s transformative work in the life of individuals and also takes into account the collective/social, structural/institutional and spiritual/cosmic dimensions of our broken world.
At the same time as HIV&AIDS treatment regimes based on ARTs (anti-retroviral therapy) were being proven effective, I was asked to coordinate SIM’s global response to the pandemic. With ARTs, HIV was no longer an “incurable disease”; however lifesaving treatment could not be accessed by the vast majority of those infected, especially in resource-limited nations. Already recognised as a “disease of poverty,” suddenly HIV became a “disease of justice”: those in wealthy nations or with access to resources could look forward to some sort of future, while most were shut out.
For many of those involved in the “war” against HIV&AIDS, it was about a virus destroying the human immune system that had to be controlled by medical and social means until a vaccine could be developed to protect human beings. For others, responding also meant putting a human face on a deadly disease, and dealing primarily with the tremendous shame and stigma attached to HIV: “HIV is a virus and, medically speaking, AIDS is the consequence of viral infection; but the issues raised by the pandemic are far from purely medical or clinical. They touch on cultural norms and practices, socio-economic conditions, issues of gender, economic development, human responsibility, sexuality and morality.” For those of us following Jesus, HIV became a symptom of our broken world with many dimensions. HIV was a “dis-ease” above all of broken relationships: with God, with family, with community, and with self. It could only be tackled effectively by responding with God’s compassion in these many dimensions, in strategic partnerships and by opposing the evil and spiritual forces that allowed it to flourish.
As we review the 35-year history of HIV&AIDS, we come to appreciate that the church has had a vital role to play in turning the tide. However the church has also been on a journey. For many Christians, a kingdom response has meant a shift from rejecting those infected and affected as sinners to opposing the forces that encouraged the stigmatising of those infected and their families. It has meant tackling the many injustices, protecting the vulnerable, strengthening marriages and families, sharing Christ and discipling those who come to faith, and prayer. Many valuable lessons have been learned by churches making sense of good and evil in a journey of serving their communities impacted by HIV.
While we live in a day of great strides in dealing with human problems, yet we are surrounded by indications of growing evil. The gospel is to be good news to people despairing of the brokenness within them and around them, in a world where wars, hunger and diseases such as HIV are both symptoms and causes, where the kingdom of God has come, is coming, and will come. Integral mission begins with the heart of the gospel of Jesus Christ: God’s kingdom appearing, God’s will done on earth as it is in heaven, and God reconciling the creation and human beings from every nation, tribe, people and language to himself. “Make the most of every opportunity because the days are evil.” (Eph 5:16 NIV).
A renewed theological and missiological understanding here will enable us to make more sense of our broken world. We will need to overcome barriers of geography, politics, ignorance, our own sinful natures, opposing social structures and spiritual forces in order to proclaim the crucified and risen Christ, expressing His love and compassion among those who live and die without ever hearing about him. Evil, sin, and the forces of darkness are complex and at work within and across multiple aspects of life: individual, social-collective, institutional-structural, and spiritual-cosmic dimensions. Equally the goodness, mercy and grace of God pervade every dimension. Human beings face eternal consequences for ignoring or rejecting the justice and righteousness inherent in the character of God. These realities should strengthen our resolve to work with Christ and for Christ as his ambassadors in the extension of his kingdom: “But seek first the kingdom of God and its/his justice . . .” (Mt 6:33).
1. Beginning at the beginning
In the beginning was God: eternal, good, loving, sovereign, perfect and just. He created the whole world and it belongs to Him (Gen 1; Ps 33:5-11; Job 1:6-12). Scripture tells us that evil was present in the universe before Eve and Adam ate the forbidden fruit (Gen 3:1). But humanity was created sinless as “the climax of God’s earthly creation, bearing his image, designed for relationship with him, and being the object of his redeeming love.” God created our ancestors with the assurance of his provision and with the mandate to have dominion over creation (Gen 1:28).
However with Adam and Eve choosing to reject God’s fatherhood and follow the usurper (Gen 3:4-6), sin and evil entered our world destroying the fullness of life, relationships, community and the created order. “This results in guilt, death and alienation from God as well as the defacing of every aspect of human nature.” All human beings, with the exception of Jesus Christ, are sinners, such that we are equally under God’s judgment and needing his mercy (Is 53:6; Acts 2:38-40; Rom 3:23-24; 6:23; Heb 4:15-16). We share in the fallen state of God’s present creation and the ongoing rebellion of humanity against God (Gen 3:1-8; Mt 24:4-14; Rom 1:18-2:1; 5:12; 2 Tim 3:1-5).
Angels are “personal spirit beings who glorify God, serve him, and minister to his people.” They are created beings possessing free will and knowledge (Mk 13:32). Like human beings, some have used this to rebel against God (2 Pet 2:4). Satan is a fallen angel and the enemy of God and humanity. He is the face of biblical evil, actively at work in multiple dimensions: in and through individuals, within communities, behind social and institutional structures, and at the spiritual-cosmic level. However, Satan’s power is usurped, not absolute; he is the father of lies and deception, a roaring lion seeking to devour, and encouraging sinful humanity in our rebellion (Gen 3:4-5; Jn 8:42-45; 1 Pet 5:8-9).
The forces of darkness, including demons and evil spirits, are likewise created beings ultimately subordinate to God. Together with Satan they are defeated enemies, conquered by Christ, subject to God’s authority, and facing eternal condemnation (Col 2:15; 1 Pet 3:22). Jesus came to destroy the work of the devil, evil and sin through his death and resurrection (1 Jn 3:8; Mt 6:13; Eph 1:18-21). However human beings remain vulnerable to sin’s influence and the work of the evil one in this world. We are unable to save themselves from Satan’s dominion and from sin’s penalty and power.142]
All human beings are implicated in the spiritual-cosmic battle led by Satan and his forces against God (Job 1:7-11; Lk 10:17-20; 22:31-32; Rev 13:5-8). The people of God work with Him to establish his kingdom on earth (Mt 6:9-10) but experience a backlash from Satan and his forces. The progress and outcome of this battle is not determined by human power. The spiritual forces of evil are to be resisted and fought using spiritual weapons (2 Cor 10:3-6; Eph 6:10-18; 1 Pet 5:9-10; James 4:7; Rev 12:11). “As we confront demonic powers in our Christian pilgrimage, we should face them as victors, for Christ has won the victory over them through his blood.”
God hates evil and as judge will punish all who are disobedient to his revealed glory and commandments, and who bring dishonour to his name (Acts 17:31; Rom 1:18; Heb 10:26-27; 1 Pet 4:17). In the words of the Manila Manifesto, “The whole Gospel is the good news of God’s salvation from the power of evil, the establishment of his eternal kingdom and his final victory over everything which defies his purpose.” Salvation involves the deliverance from, and destruction of, evil, sin and injustice along with all spiritual forces committed to these.
Christ the King will one day come again to inaugurate his kingdom in its fullness (Is 65:17-25; Mt 24:30-31; 1 Thes 4:14-17; Rev 21:1-5). “The kingdom is in its present beginnings though future in its fullness: in one sense it is here already, but in the richest sense it is still to come (Luke 11:20; 16:16; 22:16, 18, 29-30). He will return as judge over sinners, Satan, evil, the forces of darkness, and death itself, demonstrating his justice, righteousness, and the rightness of God’s ways (Rom 2:5-16; 1 Cor 15:20-28; 2 Thes 1:7-10; Heb 9:28). Until that time the whole creation groans and waits (Rom 8:19-21).
As our Father, God has given to humanity a social mandate to populate the earth, to live by the values of the kingdom, to care as stewards for the earth and all it contains, to actively oppose manifestations of evil, and ultimately to bring him honour and glory (Gen. 1:28; 2:15; 4:9-10; Ps 50:10-12; Mt 6:26-30; Rev 19:7). Because humanity includes those who do not recognise Christ as Lord over all, he has given to His church an evangelistic mandate to make disciples of all peoples (Phil 2:9-11; Gen 12:2-3; 1 Kgs 8:41-43; Mt 24:14; 28:18-20; Acts 1:8). This mandate is carried out by verbal proclamation, by deeds of righteousness and justice, and by a lifestyle of holiness (Mt 6:33; Col 4:5-6; Eph 5:11-17; 1 Tim 3:7; Tit 2:12-14).
2. Making sense of evil, sin, the forces of darkness, and injustice
Many of us raised or educated in a worldview shaped by the Enlightenment: see the universe through a naturist’s lenses. Even as Christians, we may become anesthetized to the underlying reality of evil and the forces of darkness in our world: evil is impersonal and random. Likewise we tend toward deism, and prayer may become perfunctory. This is an issue not just for those raised and educated in the West; many highly qualified teachers and preachers in the non-West have also embraced this worldview and communicate it to their students and congregations. Plentiful resources from the West – online courses, books, trainings, etc – tend to reinforce this view of life.
Missiologist Paul Hiebert’s model of worldview alerts us to the dualistic Cartesian understanding widely embraced in the West and beyond. It demonstrates the assumption of reality divided into the invisible-supernatural and the visible-material; he further argues that in the West the realm of the “supernatural” in everyday life, including the actions of both God and evil forces, is excluded. Such thinking has strongly influenced the way that evil has been conceptualised in much of the post-Enlightenment so-called “modern missionary enterprise.” Although Western Christianity has rightly emphasized God at work in the individual together with the need for godly living by each person, the biblical reality of God and Satan operating in the collective-social and structural-institutional dimensions of life has often been ignored or misunderstood by Evangelicals. As the Lausanne Covenant states: “. . . we express penitence both for our neglect and for having sometimes regarded evangelism and social concern as mutually exclusive. Although reconciliation with other people is not reconciliation with God, nor is social action evangelism, nor is political liberation salvation, nevertheless we affirm that evangelism and socio-political involvement are both part of our Christian duty.”
The following diagram illustrates the multi-dimensional manifestations of evil, sin, the forces of darkness, and injustice in our world. Likewise the goodness, grace, mercy and justice of God pervade these dimensions. Although it could be debated that this framework retains a measure of compartmentalized Western thought patterns, it is helpful in drawing our attention to dimensions that may be overlooked. It can also move us toward integration in a biblical sense. The gospel is indeed good news of God’s salvation from the very real power of evil, sin, and the forces of darkness, both seen and unseen, across all dimensions, and the establishment of God’s eternal kingdom in its fullness.
Figure 1: Multi-dimensional manifestations of evil and good: a framework
“For although humans knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened … therefore God gave them over to the sinful desires of their heart” (Rom 1:21-25). Suffering and disease, violence and conflict, pain and death all have their roots in human sin: the sinful desires of the human heart, the all-pervasive presence of evil permeating all dimensions, and ultimately of relationships broken between God and humanity, people with people, and humanity with the creation (Gen 3:12; Is 59:9-15; Jn 11:35; 1 Jn 5:18-19). At its heart, this sin record and the injustices it fosters are essentially relational. Note that:
- Within the individual dimension (above), both God and evil powers are active in the very core of worldview expressed through beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviour. Every individual also experiences temptation, sin and evil in the social, structural and spiritual/cosmic dimensions (Mt 1:18-25; 16:21-24; Lk 12:13-21; 16:19-31).
- Within the social/collective dimension, of which the individual is an integral part, good and evil are expressed through gender, family, community and ethnic relations (Gen 50:19-20; Mt 12:34-35; 18:1-4; 23:32-33; Lk 10:25-37; Jn 8:1-11; Gal 3:28).
- Likewise good and evil are present within the structural/institutional dimension of reality impacting economic relations, governance and the environment. Sin is evident in greed, corruption and abuse of resources (2 Chr 7:14; Psalm 82; Mk 11:15-18; Rom 13:1-7; Rev 18:21-24).
- Spiritual warfare takes place in the spiritual/cosmic dimension which is largely invisible. We may be unaware of the spiritual/cosmic impacts of our actions, or the spiritual/cosmic context of our situation. Prayer and the armour of God are essential tools for spiritual battle (Job 1, 2; Dan 6:10-11; 9:4-23; 10:12-13; Mt 16:19; 17:17-21; Eph 6:12-16; Col 1:12-14; Rev 8:3-4).
These four dimensions are porous in nature with elements of each dimension constantly interacting, interrelating and impacting the others; they are not fixed sets with fixed boundaries operating in isolation. For example when considering the impact of HIV, evil, sin, and injustice as well as good and justice, manifest across all dimensions.
We see this above in the story of Rung, orphaned as a child from a displaced immigrant family (individual and collective dimensions). She struggles with the consequences of poor nutrition and health, and with the lack of emotional support to deal with grief and trauma (individual and collective dimensions). Denied the opportunities offered by education and access to social services, she has limited prospects for employment (structural/institutional). Abused and dying with AIDS and without Jesus, she lacks any hope (all dimensions). She is part of a community “living and dying without hearing of Jesus”; however it is possible that believers around the world are praying for her community (spiritual/cosmic). God intervenes. When desperately ill and alone she encounters the love and compassion of Christ lived out through a support worker who helps her access care and treatment (Spiritual/cosmic and structural/institutional). Integrated into a community of faith, Rung is not only encouraged by models of disciples living out the gospel in the power of the Holy Spirit, she has support to access health care services that she was previously denied (all dimensions). She has hope for the future (individual).
It is important for us to recognise the presence of evil, sin, the forces of darkness, and injustice beyond what is visible or emphasized by our own worldview. For example, we may be tempted to quickly judge and condemn the moral choices of individuals at risk of exposure to HIV while ignoring social expectations surrounding gender roles and structural injustices, such as limited access to education and health care, or unemployment due to inequitable market forces. The young woman who turns to prostitution may be assisting her family out of debt when a family member with HIV loses his job, or paying school fees to provide a better life for her children.
As The Cape Town Commitment Confession of Faith states: “. . . love for the poor demands that we not only love mercy and deeds of compassion, but also that we do justice through exposing all that oppresses and exploits the poor.” Forms of evil, sin, darkness and injustice are to be identified and rejected by God’s people, and his kingdom of justice proclaimed and demonstrated at every level through integrating word and deed. An effective response to HIV using this framework would recognise that:
- An integrated, holistic response recognizes the complexity of HIV globally – not one pandemic but many local epidemics with variations in cause and response.
- At the individual level, clinical interventions are important along with prevention activities addressing behaviour, attitudes and values. We want to see the individual moving toward such healthy attributes in his or her lifestyle, whether they are infected, an affected family member, a neighbour, or a volunteer visiting the home every week.
- An understanding of, and focus on, the transformation of worldview is critical, involving spiritual warfare at the spiritual/cosmic level. Prayer makes a difference.
- Simultaneously the collective/social dimension is addressed, including gender, family, community and ethnic relations. Strategies to strengthen marriage and family life are a high priority, along with home-based care for the sick, and the care of orphans and vulnerable children.
- At the structural/institutional level, initiatives that advocate for improved and equitable access to health, educational, and other community services will strengthen and reinforce activities within the other dimensions. For example, the education of girls will improve the overall health of the family. Income generating activities improve the well-being of individuals, families and communities; they also impact economic structures. Activities within this dimension addressing economic relations, governance and environmental concerns often require extensive national and international networking.
3. The church as God’s instrument of good, light and justice
From the very early days of the HIV&AIDS pandemic, ordinary people and families led the way in providing for the needs of those impacted by illness, death and displacement. Sadly, many like Rung lacked the dimension of family and community. Churches and faith-based organisations were among the first and most prominent non-government organisations working to address the epidemic. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, the church discovered its unique positioning to spread HIV&AIDS education and prevention messages through its extensive networks reaching the most remote areas.
From 2000 to 2015, HOPE for AIDS was the flagship multi-country response to HIV by SIM as an international mission organisation. HOPE is an acronym for Home-Based Care, Orphans and vulnerable Children, Prevention, and Enabling. At its peak, this program involved more than 50 HIV&AIDS projects spanning 12 countries. The vision was to engage and support local church partners in effective, holistic and compassionate responses to HIV in order to transform individuals, families and communities through Christ’s love. This included building capacity: enabling local churches to access the resources and services available through government channels in appropriate and effective ways.
The following story told by a medical doctor and church leader illustrates some of the challenges churches have commonly encountered as they reach out in love and compassion to those living with HIV. Once again, the various dimensions elaborated above are clearly visible:
I can give you my “ah, hah” moment talking with a widow who had a three month old child. She met a man at the AIDS clinic where she was getting her free antiretroviral therapy and he was getting his. She was unemployed and didn’t have enough money to pay the rent, buy food and pay school fees [for her children]. She became dependent on this man to help, as apparently he did at least have a job. When there was no food in the house, he would bring food in. When one of the children was thrown out of school for not having paid their school fees, then he would help with school fees. When she was being threatened with eviction for not paying the rent, then he would help with the rent. It reached the point when he wanted to spend the night with her and she didn’t feel that she could say no. She ended up getting pregnant.
In talking with her, one of the questions in my mind was: If people know what the right decision is to make but they make another decision, why is it? I asked her. I tried to be very non-accusing and non-judgmental. I want to understand. I asked her some rather probing questions like, “When you go to the clinic to get your anti-AIDS drugs, did they ever talk to you about positive living and how to live a healthy lifestyle?” and “Did they talk to you about the use of condoms if you are going to be sexually active and that you are supposed to use a condom every time?” She replied “Yes, yes, they do but you have got a three month old baby so you don’t use a condom every time. Well you know these men. They don’t like condoms. They don’t use condoms”. So I said something along the lines of, “You could say ‘no’ without a condom because you know that you are taking a risk with your own health”. She said, “I know that this is wrong” – and she used that word – and “I shouldn’t do it but I was afraid that if I refused that he would stop helping and he would stop coming and I wouldn’t have help”. But then when she turned up pregnant he left anyway.
In processing through this interview with her later, I realised that she was making a decision that was the most ethical decision that she could make in the face of conflicting demands. Her only hope at that time to provide a safe home environment, an education and good nutrition for her children was to potentially sacrifice her own health and to take upon herself the wrath of God. Of course the church says that is sin. But she was willing to take that chance even if God was angry at her, in order for her kids to get an education. In her mind, this was the most ethical thing to do. She knew that she was acting contrary to the teachings of the church but she did not feel in a position to say no. She was not empowered to say no because of her poverty and of her living circumstances.
As a follower of Christ and a professional care-giver, Dr B^^^ is personally challenged: in the individual dimension, this woman has made a “bad” decision. However in considering her story from a bigger perspective – multiple dimensions – he concludes that, “she was making a decision that was the most ethical decision that she could make in the face of conflicting demands.” An integrated, holistic response recognising the complexity of HIV in the context of poverty, gender relations and shame was necessary in this situation. Dr B^^^ was able to “exegete” the woman’s story in her context with new eyes.
How can we enable the church globally to see with this perspective? For me, a turning point came in 2000 with the courageous action of the Reverend Gideon Byamugisha, the first practising African Anglican priest to declare publicly his HIV positive status. He wrote that, “With little understanding comes silence and with silence comes either distortion or fanaticism” as he set out to “break the silence” in God’s church. As we look back, we can see that courageous actions of many individuals and congregations have encouraged many local churches faced by HIV&AIDS to set out on a journey: from stigma and judgment to understanding, acceptance and Christ-like ministry.
4. Lessons learned
This discussion of evil, sin, the forces of darkness, and injustice, together with a framework to guide our thinking as God’s people in a fallen world, is offered here to enable us to more effectively respond to the God of justice who is in our days bringing in his kingdom of righteousness and peace: “I am making everything new” (Rev 21:4-5). It calls us to:
- Ensure that ministries of compassion, mercy and justice are well grounded biblically
- Embrace a sacrificial response
- Withhold judgment
- Undertake serious research, including qualitative research
- Move beyond simplistic analyses and solutions to identify and address complexities
- Know, understand, and respond to our context, locally and globally
- Partner and network with churches and other organisations in unity of purpose
- Address the “fear factor”, including stigmatisation and discrimination
- Provide a vibrant testimony to the gospel through character, word and action
- Continually evaluate and adjust to constant changes
I have used the example of responding to HIV&AIDS, firstly because it has changed me, my organisation and our partners. Secondly it has enabled churches around the world to quietly respond with effective ministry in their context. In 2015 SIM decided that HOPE for AIDS had achieved its objective; while HIV still infected and affected millions, churches and organisations at the national level were able to respond as servants of Christ in a broken world.
There are many other “pandemics” today – pervasive manifestations of evil, sin, the forces of darkness, and injustice. What they have in common is the lack of human solutions. As we understand these crises from the individual, collective/social, structural/institutional and spiritual/cosmic dimensions, we will be better placed to play the role God has given us. He calls us to a dynamic partnership with him and each other as incredibly gifted and complementing members of the body of Christ, graciously inviting us to work with him in each dimension of the endeavour – in order to do so, we as diverse human beings need to work together to hear what God is saying and respond in his fullness.
 SIM Purpose and Mission Statement (2015)
 See Lausanne Covenant (1974), Section 5: Christian Social Responsibility. https://www.lausanne.org/content/covenant/lausanne-covenant
 Not her real name
 Integral Mission derives from the work of the Latin American Theological Fellowship in the 1970s. See Micah Network’s Declaration: http://www.micahnetwork.org/sites/default/files/doc/page/mn_integral_mission_declaration_en.pdf
 Radical Grace Imprint, 2016.
 World Council of Churches. Facing AIDS: The Challenge, the Churches’ Response. Geneva: WCC Publications, 1997). P.97. See also: http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/ReductionofHIV-relatedstigmaanddiscrimination.
 Unless indicated otherwise, all references are from NIV®©2011 by Biblica, Inc.
 Translated from the Spanish Reina Valera Actualizada ©2015 by Editorial Mundo Hispano.
 SIM Statement of Faith.
 SIM Statement of Faith. To this we should add “shame.”
 Marshall, Phillip. “Towards a Theology of HIV&AIDS” Evangelical Review of Theology, 29/2, Apr 2005. Pp. 136-37.
 SIM Statement of Faith.
 Nkansah-Obrempong, James. “Angels, Demons and Powers,” Africa Bible Commentary. 1st edn. Ed. Tokunboh Adeyemo. (Zondervan, 2006) Pp. 1,454-5. See also Khatry, Ramesh. “Witchcraft and Demons.” South Asia Bible Commentary. Ed. Brian Wintle. (Zondervan, 2015) P.371. See also SIM Statement
 SIM Statement of Faith, 7 November 2006.
 Nkansah-Obrempong, “Angels, Demons and Powers,” Pp. 1,454-5.
 Lausanne Committee. Manila Manifesto. www.lausanne.org/manila-1989/manila-manifesto.html
 J.I.Packer. Concise Theology: A Guide to Historic Christian Beliefs. (Tyndale, 1993) P. 194.
 As a personal note, I have observed in Singapore a tendency to grab hold of resources from the USA without giving attention to context.
 See Hiebert, Paul. Transforming Worldviews: An Anthropological Understanding of How People Change (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2008), especially ch.10 “Toward a Biblical Worldview,” pp.265-305. See also his Cultural Anthropology 2nd edn (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1983) pp. 356ff.
 For Hiebert’s “The Flaw of the Excluded Middle,” see ch.12 of his Anthropological Reflections on Missiological Issues, (Baker, 1994) pp.189-201.
 Lausanne Covenant (1974), Section 5: Christian Social Responsibility. https://www.lausanne.org/content/covenant/lausanne-covenant.
 Wright, C.J.H. Old Testament Ethics for the People of God. (Leicester, UK: IVP, 2004) P. 259.
 The Cape Town Commitment Confession of Faith, Section 7C: We love God’s World. https://www.lausanne.org/content/ctc/ctcommitment.
 See, for example: https://www.norad.no/en/front/thematicareas/education/girls-and-education/ In the context of HIV, see DFID: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/development/docs/girlseducation.pdf
 Green, E.C. Broken Promises: How the AIDS establishment has betrayed the developing world. (Sausalito, CA.: Polipoint, 2011).
 Marshall, Diane. (2015) More than telling stories: Learning practice in HIV&AIDS work in sub Saharan Africa. University of Technology, Sydney. https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/bitstream/10453/34447/1/01front.pdf
 Byamugisha, Gideon. Breaking the Silence on HIV/AIDS in Africa: How Can Religious Institutions Talk About Sexual Matters in their Communities?. (Kampala, Uganda: Tricolour, 2000), P.18. See also Byamugisha, G., Steinitz, L.Y., Williams, G., and Zondi, P. Journeys of Faith: Church-based Responses to HIV and AIDS in Three Southern African Countries. Strategies for Hope Series, no.16. (UK: ActionAid, 2002).
 SIM (Serving in Mission) works in around 70 countries. For more information www.sim.org.
Byamugisha, Gideon. Breaking the Silence on HIV/Aids in Africa: How Can Religious Institutions Talk About Sexual Matters in Their Communities. (Kampala, Uganda: Tricolour, 2000).
Byamugisha, G., Steinitz, L.Y., Williams, G., and Zondi, P. Journeys of Faith: Church-Based Responses to HIV And Aids in Three Southern African Countries. Strategies for Hope Series, no.16. (UK: ActionAid, 2002).
Green, E.C. 2011, Broken Promises: How the Aids Establishment Has Betrayed the Developing World, Polipoint Press, Sausalito, CA.
Hiebert, Paul. Cultural Anthropology. 2nd edn (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1983)
__________. Anthropological Reflections on Missiological Issues. (Baker, 1994)
__________. Transforming Worldviews: An Anthropological Understanding of How People Change. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2008)
__________. Spiritual Warfare and Worldview. www.lausanne.org/all-documents/spiritual-warfare-and-worldview.html
Khatry, Ramesh. “Witchcraft and Demons.” South Asia Bible Commentary. Ed. Brian Wintle. (Zondervan, 2015) p. 371.
Lausanne Committee. Cape Town Commitment Confession of Faith. https://www.lausanne.org/content/ctc/ctcommitment
__________. Lausanne Covenant. www.lausanne.org/content/covenant/lausanne-covenant
__________. Manila Manifesto. www.lausanne.org/manila-1989/manila-manifesto.html
Marshall, Diane. Evil, Sin, and the Forces of Darkness, Justice Task Force, 9 Feb 2010
Marshall, Diane. (2015) More Than Telling Stories: Learning Practice in HIV&AIDS work in sub Saharan Africa. University of Technology, Sydney. https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/bitstream/10453/34447/1/01front.pdf
Marshall, Phillip. “Towards a Theology of HIV&AIDS, in Evangelical Review of Theology.” Evangelical Review of Theology. Vol.29, no.2, April 2005.
Micah Network. www.micahnetwork.org/sites/default/files/doc/page/mn_integral_mission_declaration_en.pdf
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Dr. Diane Marshall, SIM’s Deputy International Director, Asia Pacific based in Singapore, is passionate about nurturing new generations in cross-cultural mission. She has worked in Peru (1986-1999) in theological education, church leadership training and mission leadership, and as SIM’s Consultant for HIV&AIDS ministry (2000-2012) facilitating a multi-country response to HIV in Africa, Asia and South America. Her PhD is in workplace learning: How program managers and staff in faith-based programs in community settings learn in the context of challenging and changing work conditions.